UE Product design Standards / & on cueing UE-rules

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Fred G. Unn
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Re: UE Product design Standards

Post by Fred G. Unn » 21 Jul 2016, 16:09

I took a minute to check through Gould, which is essentially the Faber style guide, and both the Boosey and Schirmer style guides as I was curious how they compared to the UE guide in the original post with regard to cueing. Regardless of the myriad of ways cues have historically been handled, all four seem to be very close in agreement as to the appropriate ways to handle cueing in current publications.

On cue notes in a bar with an entrance
UE: "Cue notes may not be written in the bar in which the instrument playing the current orchestral part comes in again."
Gould: "Unless it is important to follow through a cue right up to an entry (e.g. to show how the player continues a phrase), finish a cue in the previous bar, so as not to obscure the entry." (pg 571)
Boosey: Doesn't mention cueing in an entry bar per se, but the example in the cueing section 7.12 shows an open-ended tie from the cue measure into the entrance measure which begins with a rest. If the cue was allowed to continue into the entry measure, I assume they would have showed the note in the bar rather than a cue note tied to a full sized rest. (pg 36)
Schirmer: Not mentioned at all in Cue section, pgs 65-67. All examples in this section have an instrument entering on the first beat of a measure so it doesn't seem to be addressed. Other examples of part layout (like pg 61) show the cue ending in the previous bar, and the entry bar beginning with a full sized rest, but as I don't know what piece this is I cannot say this is conclusive one way or the other.

On using solo or vocal parts as cues
UE: "Solo and vocal parts may not be used as cue notes."
Gould: "CUE FROM A SOLOIST, SINGER OR SPEAKER Such a cue should be a last resort - either when there is no alternative cue, or when the instrument's entry depends on it: the soloist or singers may not be present at the first rehearsals. Furthermore, when, in performance, a singer or speaker is positioned at the front of the stage and the players behind, the players may not the able to hear the cue. In a work for a small ensemble, a soloist is likely to be present at initial rehearsals and therefore such a cue is appropriate." (pg 568) "If in doubt, cue the line of a player sitting in close proximity." (pg 567)
Boosey: Not mentioned directly, only "When selecting cues, make sure that the player can hear the cue and - most importantly - that it is unique." (pg 37)
Schirmer: Not mentioned directly, only "Select a clear musical entrance for the cue ... A secondary voice or repetitive pattern that has been continuing for some time would be a bad one." (pg 65)

On transposing cues
UE: "Cue notes are notated in the parts as they appear in the score. If the score is in the key of C, all cue notes must also be notated in C in the transposing instrumental parts. If the score is written transposed, all instruments are also cited in the instrumental parts, whereby here the tuning must also be mentioned in the citation (e.g. Hr. in F)." I'm not entirely clear about what they are trying to say here.
Gould: "A cue should be transposed into the key of the playing instrument, as if the player is to play the cue." (pg 574) "It is best to notate a cue in the player's current clef, especially when the cue is short." (pg 572)
Boosey: Not mentioned. I would assume transposed is standard, but their example is an Oboe cue in a Flute part from Britten's "Four Sea Interludes," and as those are both C instruments this isn't terribly helpful. (pg 36)
Schirmer: "Cues must always be transposed and in the native clef of the instrumental part. ... With instruments that read only one clef you should try to keep cues in that clef." (pg 65)

On type styles of cues
UE: "Names of instruments in cue notes" are Times Roman 10pt (pg VI) Their examples use a superscript when indicating which player as in "Tr. 1ª" and "Ob. 1º".
Gould: "Indicate the cued instrument or voice as an abbreviation at the stem end of the cue, above the stave for cues with conventional stem direction. Indicate instrumental changes during a cue, using the '+' sign for additional instruments." (pg 570) She does not use parenthesis in her examples, and uses a standard serif font, not italic or another text style. No ordinals or superscript.
Boosey: Not mentioned, but labeling style in examples seems consistent with Gould and Schirmer.
Schirmer: "A label identifying the instrument should appear at the beginning of a cue. Abbreviate appropriately; do not use parenthesis." (pg 67) Schirmer also uses a standard serif font in their examples, and no ordinals or superscript.

On superfluous information
UE: Their examples containing elements other than pitch and rhythmic information seem a bit inconsistent. The part on pg 10-11 does not contain other elements, but the part on pg 8 does.
Gould: "Apart from an indication of instrumentation, pitch and rhythmic information is usually all that is needed from a cue. Omit dynamics, articulation and phrasing except when they are important in the context, e.g. when the signal a change of texture." (pg 569)
Boosey: "Dymanics and other performance indications are only normally included if the cue may have to be played - to replace an optional instrument, for example." (pg 36)
Schirmer: "Cues only need pitch and rhythmic information (no slurs, articulations, dynamics, etc.)" (pg 66)

On text cues
UE: Uses text cues "Va., Vc." above the staff on pgs 9 and 13, so clearly allowed.
Gould: "INDICATION OF PROMINENT ENTRIES Prominent entries are useful markers during long rest periods and preceding a melodic or rhythmic cue." (pg 567) Approval of text cues, although I do find her style of always placing them below the staff interesting.
Boosey: Not mentioned nor demonstrated in examples.
Schirmer: "If the entire brass section enters fff on the downbeat of measure 27, this is a good choice for a cue (and the word "Brass" is sometimes sufficient.)" (pg 65) Approval of text cues, but no visual example is given so I'm not sure if Schirmer places them below the staff like Gould does or not.

There seems to be a remarkable consistency with how current publishers handle cues. Style trends may come and go I suppose, but the current style that musicians will expect for new work is pretty clear from the above guidelines.

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John Ruggero
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Re: UE Product design Standards

Post by John Ruggero » 21 Jul 2016, 20:40

Fred, I myself find little consistency in these sources. UE completely forbids all cues in playing measures, Gould allows them when it is important to show continuity or other matters, Boosey doesn't deal with the issue directly but uses open-ended ties, and Schirmer doesn't deal with the issue at all. And so it goes...

I believe that Arnold Arnstein was a source of at least equal importance to these because of his vast experience (from 1925-1989) editing and copying parts for some of the most important composers of several generations and for many major publishers—all of whom gave him carte blanche to do what he thought best irrespective of "house styles" etc.

Arnstein didn't conform to the status quo, but exceeded it, which was why important composers used his services repeatedly and came to him to look over their work and ask his advice. I heard these conversations and the respect with which his opinions were treated by well-known musicians. Many first came into the office with parts that had acres of multi-measure rests without connecting cues, "blip" cues (his term for one-note cues), word cues and all the rest of the "standard" ways of doing things that caused performers to have to write in their own. Arnstein patiently explained how they could improve their parts so that players could focus on playing rather than doctoring parts and thus giving a better performance, even prima vista.

To repeat, Arnstein was not content to produce what was "acceptable", but aimed to produce something outstanding and superior to the competition.

Others might use verbal cues precisely because they allowed long stretches of multi-measure rests without musical cues. He didn't, because long stretches of uncued multi-measure rests would never occur in his parts. And he had asked himself the question: Which is better, a word cue or the actual melody to confirm a location? If dynamics or articulations were relevant, they appeared in the cues. In short, he did what produced the best results, not what was expedient or dictated by "authorities".

I believe that musicians today would benefit from his ideas and will continue to communicate them as the occasion arises.
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Re: UE Product design Standards

Post by David Ward » 22 Jul 2016, 06:54

John Ruggero wrote:… … … In short, he did what produced the best results, not what was expedient or dictated by "authorities". 
That's what matters.
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Fred G. Unn
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Re: UE Product design Standards

Post by Fred G. Unn » 24 Jul 2016, 01:42

John Ruggero wrote: I believe that musicians today would benefit from his ideas and will continue to communicate them as the occasion arises.
I emailed the NYC Performing Arts library a few days ago regarding the accessibility of the Arnstein Collection:
http://archives.nypl.org/mus/20269

I haven't heard back from them yet, but if I can access and photocopy/scan any of it, I will be sure to post some samples here. I had specifically inquired about orchestral parts containing cues. I'm curious as to what they make available.

BTW John, I didn't hear back from you, but did you get the files I sent you a few days ago via PM? Just wondering if you had that already or if you found it intriguing. (Please don't post about it publicly by name, as I don't really want that getting out.)

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John Ruggero
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Re: UE Product design Standards

Post by John Ruggero » 24 Jul 2016, 14:24

Sorry, Fred. I hadn't checked my messages recently. Thanks so much for the info. I will look it over carefully and respond directly to you after I finish a project.

It would be very interesting to see actual Arnstein parts after all these years. I remember that his musical handwriting was not at all "pretty" but very distinctive and sturdy. The note heads in particular had tremendous power that hit you right in the eyes so you would never have a doubt about a pitch. It was so clear without looking like he was imitating engraving. How that held up into his 80s would be interesting to see, as would examples from different times in his life. If you sent me what you get, I could verify what is indeed by him or a member of his team; the collection may also contain outside parts undocumented by the collection. I contacted the collection a while ago to clear up a "mystery" mentioned on the website; I received no response, which was disappointing.

Here are are a few links that I found of interest about Arnstein. The first, by another Arnstein alumnus who I plan to contact, contains an amusing article written about him by Harold Schonberg, the music critic of the NY TImes. The others are a few memories by various composers. Of course, all of this material should be taken with a grain of salt; I did notice inaccuracies. Unfortunately, I can't post the Time Magazine article about him or an extensive passage about him in a N Y Times article on Barber's Anthony and Cleopatra, because of copyright issues. However, they are available on a fee basis to anyone interested.

http://www.musicpreparation.biz/arnie/

https://books.google.com/books?id=dOCVj ... st&f=false

https://books.google.com/books?id=8mAeC ... st&f=false

https://books.google.com/books?id=lpBcY ... st&f=false

http://www.huffingtonpost.com/daron-hag ... 45746.html
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Fred G. Unn
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Re: UE Product design Standards

Post by Fred G. Unn » 24 Jul 2016, 20:32

John Ruggero wrote:Sorry, Fred. I hadn't checked my messages recently. Thanks so much for the info. I will look it over carefully and respond directly to you after I finish a project.
No problem, just wanted to make sure you got it.

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Re: UE Product design Standards / & on cueing UE-rules

Post by Fred G. Unn » 26 Jul 2016, 01:07

I got a response regarding the Arnstein collection at the Performing Arts Library:

"That collection is housed onsite, so you would be able to access it that same day any time you came into the library. It would be paged to you within about 15 minutes.

You would be able take photographs of this collection.

Here is the catalog record for the collection: http://catalog.nypl.org/record=b15851806

Here is the finding aid http://archives.nypl.org/mus/20269#detailed

If you wanted copies or scans for research purposes, you would have to work with our Copies and Reproductions Department

If you want hi quality images of the material, or images for publication, you would have to work with our Permissions Department

Please let me know if you have any further questions"

I'm not sure when I'll have time to go check it out, but I hope to get there in the next couple of weeks or so.

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Re: UE Product design Standards / & on cueing UE-rules

Post by John Ruggero » 26 Jul 2016, 17:27

Here is a part that I prepared while I was working with Arnstein. It contains only two cues because there are no large multi-measure rests. Both cues occur within playing measures and are necessary because the piano is playing freely immediately before the clarinet entrance. The second cue actually occurs simultaneously with the clarinet part.

This was a working copy and there are interpolations and corrections, one of which is unclear and needs doctoring. Corrections with an electric eraser left the surface of the transparent paper unscathed, but staff lines were lost. Arnstein used transparent paper with staff lines printed on both sides so that the staff lines would not have to be restored for the blue-printing (actually black-printing) process. For this PDF, however, I did do a little staff line restoration within InDesign.

I should visit the Arnstein Collection at Lincoln Center to see if it contains any of my parts. The collection contains odds and ends that were left in his office at his death. Composers and publishers often left the score and parts with him so that he could duplicate them on demand. Others simply left them, having apparently forgotten about them or perhaps more concerned about the next piece than the previous one.
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Re: UE Product design Standards / & on cueing UE-rules

Post by John Ruggero » 26 Jul 2016, 18:16

Here is another example that contains a cue of the more usual type: a complete and recognizable phrase that follows a longer multi-measure rest. This requires the phrase to end in the same measure as the entrance of the clarinet. I did not supply a first measure cue alla Arnstein since this was for my own use, but now I would. The treble clefs were my more usual one at the time and were drawn in three parts, alla Arnstein.
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Re: UE Product design Standards / & on cueing UE-rules

Post by John Ruggero » 27 Jul 2016, 17:23

Here are examples by Arnstein himself from a complete set of parts that I own for the Liszt Malediction for piano and strings. I used these parts for a performance, and, as usual, they came back clean with only bowings and fingerings added.

His style of calligraphy is interesting: rather than trying to imitiate engraving with its machine-like uniformity, he embraced handwriting and expressed himself in a warm, artistic way with communication and clarity as the main goals, which I think he achieves briliantly. The note heads in particular seem to strike the brain in a very primal way. And he was a very open and charming person, which comes out in his calligrapy.

Arnstein was always evolving, and at this point, he and his staff did not rule the shorter beams. When I worked for him, all beams were ruled, as were any long lines, but not the stems. Barlines for multiple staves were ruled, but not barlines in the single-staff parts. A neater system of boxing rehearsal numbers was also used later.

I also show examples by an unknown copyist on his staff (or Arnstein at an earlier stage?) of the Viotti Double Concerto for piano, violin and orchestra

In these parts one sees:

A. cues that end in playing measures
Ex 1 Malediction Vla p 7.jpg
Ex 1 Malediction Vla p 7.jpg (171.66 KiB) Viewed 5136 times
Ex 2 Malediction Bass 3a jpg.jpg
Ex 2 Malediction Bass 3a jpg.jpg (160.81 KiB) Viewed 5136 times
B. cues that break up long series of rests
Ex 3 Viotti Fl 3b.jpg
Ex 3 Viotti Fl 3b.jpg (329.61 KiB) Viewed 5136 times
C. cues at the beginning of movements
Ex 4 Viotti Hn 5b.jpg
Ex 4 Viotti Hn 5b.jpg (205.53 KiB) Viewed 5136 times
D. the absence of verbal cues throughout both sets of parts
E. articulations in cues as appropriate and musical
Ex 5 Malediction Bass 3b.jpg
Ex 5 Malediction Bass 3b.jpg (277.65 KiB) Viewed 5136 times
F. frequent rehearsal measure numbers, in this case every 5 measures in the Viotti, to faciliate counting. In the Liszt it was necessary to use the the letters from the standard score.

G. Almost all the cues are single-note melodies, but he will use a chord if it is essential to recognition. (See example 5.) This is quite rare, and I myself do not recall using chordal cues during my several years of working with him.

H. While he avoided vocal and solo cues, he does cue from the solo piano in the Malediction because there is no alternative. The same would be true of vocal pieces. If nothing else were going on, a vocal part would have to be used. In such cases, the usual objections of inaudibility or absence from the rehearsal would not hold, and the cue would be fine. Cues from the two soloists were also used in the Viotti. This may be a similar case, something that he did in concertos only at this period, or something he always did and my memory is playing me false because of his ban on cues from the vocal parts.

Other points of interest:

He often double-staffed the wind parts to save space and time (since the cues were single-staved) and to allow the players to switch parts in an emergency etc. (Ex. 4)

The following practices are more controversial and were designed to make the parts absolutely fool-proof. (They may seem strange today, but there was danger that rehearsals would degenerate into very expensive question and answer sessions, so stopping for anything concerning the parts had to be avoided at all costs.)

He beamed over rests to show duple groupings, even where the composer didn’t as in measure 1-2 of Ex. 5 and measure 6 and 8 in Ex. 1.

He didn’t beam three eighths together in 4/4 after an 1/8th rest but instead flagged the first 1/8th note so that the group could not possiby be confused with a triplet. However there was no issue with beaming cross-rhythms in threes. (First measure and last two measures of Ex. 6)
I myself find this practice problematic but understandable.
Ex 6 Malediction Vln 1 3b.jpg
Ex 6 Malediction Vln 1 3b.jpg (238.79 KiB) Viewed 5136 times
There were other rhythmic notational alterations involving secondary beam breaks that I will post in the future.
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